FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
1. Does the Booster and the Purifier need to be used together or can they be used individually?
They are used separately, one or the other. Both devices clean the exhaust and increase the engine’s fuel mileage, but the Purifier does even more to clean the exhaust than the Booster does. The Combustion Purifier is designed to meet California’s latest standards for particulate and NOx emissions, the toughest in the world, while the Catalytic Booster meets a lower standard and costs less.
2. Does the Catalytic Booster only operate in cars or does it benefit other machines/areas?
The Catalytic Booster can be used on any internal combustion engine. This includes cars, trucks, busses, off-road equipment, Diesel- or gasoline-powered generators, boats, ships, locomotives, and even select airplanes.
3. Where in the engine is the Booster installed?
The Booster (or the Purifier) is installed in the exhaust system, between the engine’s exhaust manifold and the turbocharger. The engine’s exhaust gas flows out of the engine, through the Catalytic Booster, then through the turbocharger, and then out the tailpipe.
4. Is the Purifier in the Catalytic Booster?
The Combustion Purifier and the Catalytic Booster are two separate devices, intended for application to different classes of vehicles. However, they are very similar in the way they look and how they operate. Both contain catalyst materials, just different amounts.
5. Does a low amount of catalyst equal less energy being exerted?
No. Because of the way the Booster and the Purifier are designed (using patented concepts and design methods), only a small amount of catalyst is needed to begin the “reburning” process (burning out the particulates/hydrocarbons left over in the exhaust gas). This works because the catalytic reaction adds enough energy to push the exhaust gas it is in contact with above its “ignition temperature”, thus “lighting off” the particulates in the gas. Once started, the burn sustains itself. The amount of additional energy coming out of the Booster is a function of how much particulate matter comes out of the engine in the first place. These materials burn, creating extra energy that goes into the turbocharger, which in turn makes the engine peppier and more efficient.
6. Is the Turbocharger’s expended energy dependent upon where the catalyst is placed?
Yes. The Booster or the Purifier, both of which contain catalyst materials, must be placed upstream of the turbocharger in order for the extra energy they create to be useful. The catalyst starts the process of burning particulates, as mentioned above. The energy from this burning process then goes into the turbocharger, in the form of higher temperatures and pressures of the exhaust gas. The turbocharger then uses this extra energy to compress the engine’s intake air more than it otherwise would have been able to. The more the engine’s intake air is compressed, the better its performance and fuel efficiency can be.
7. Does catalytic material assist power or heat in a positive way? Or both?
Yes, the catalytic material causes a catalytic reaction when it comes into contact with exhaust gas. Nitrogen Oxides in the exhaust gas are separated to N2 and O2 molecules. Carbon Monoxide molecules are oxidized into Carbon Dioxide molecules. Hydrocarbon molecules are oxidized into Carbon Dioxide and water molecules. Among these chemical reactions taking place, heat is added to the gas, in the form of higher temperatures. This begins the secondary reaction of particulate burn-off as described in a previous question.
8. What comes first in the purification process? Catalyst multiplication or the temperature ladder?
Technically, the catalyst multiplication does, but they both work together. Both aspects are integral parts of a functioning Booster or Purifier.
“Catalyst multiplication” actually refers to the conditions under which the catalytic reaction takes place, rather than a process of its own. Because the exhaust gas is pressurized at that point in the exhaust system (upstream of the turbocharger) at typically 4x to 5x atmospheric pressure, the molecules react with the catalyst 4 to 5 times as fast as they do in normal catalytic converters. That means that only ¼ to 1/5 as much catalytic material is needed to do the same job – and catalytic material is very expensive (and is mined in environmentally-unfriendly ways in Siberia), so this is a good thing.
“Temperature ladders” refers to the process through which exhaust gas is cooled off to a temperature low enough for the catalyst to survive in, and then heated back up again, without the addition of external energy. This is accomplished through a heat exchanger mechanism inside the device that uses the heat from one side to heat up the other, and the reverse.
9. Do all engines come with Catalytic Converters?
No. Catalytic converters are typically required on automobiles among industrialized countries, and only recently on trucks, busses, off-road equipment, generators, marine applications, or locomotives. In developing nations, catalytic converters often are not even required on these vehicles due to their expense.
10. How does the “back pressure” on an engine lower fuel mileage?
“Back pressure” refers to how much resistance the engine must overcome to push its own waste gasses (the combustion byproducts, or “exhaust”) out the back end. The more resistance there is, the harder the engine has to work to get rid of its combustion byproducts. Since the engine is only capable of generating a fixed amount of power, more power utilized to expel exhaust means that less power is available for useful purposes like propelling the vehicle. That means that fuel efficiency (as measured in miles per gallon for example) goes down.
11. Is the filter the only part of the Combustion Purifier that would need upkeep and replacement?
Actually there is no filter in either the Combustion Purifier or the Catalytic Booster. Neither device requires any maintenance. There is a class of competing emissions control devices that rely on filters to remove particulates; these filters do need frequent upkeep (cleaning) and replacement. However, our products do not need a filter.
12. In order to avoid a stall out on the highway from the filter being full or clogged, how does the system inform you when this part needs replacing?
This relates only to particulate filters (a competing technology) – a pressure sensor, often connected to the engine control system, indicates when replacement or cleaning is needed.
13. Can you explain what you mean when you say the products are cost effective? Energy effective?
Compared to competing emissions control technologies, our products achieve greater levels of both particulate and NOx reductions, at a purchase and installation cost that is equal or less than others on the market. In addition, after installation, our devices actually save the operator money because of the increased fuel efficiency they allow the vehicle to achieve. By comparison, the competing technologies actually decrease fuel efficiency – so in that case the operator has to pay an up-front cost followed by continuously recurring increased operating costs (higher fuel costs).
14. When you say the products meet emission standards, what do you mean?
The Combustion Purifier meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) Level III emissions standards for both particulate matter reduction and NOx reduction. Which are?
15. What are the emission standards?
The standards vary according to the type of engine being operated and how it is being used. The law as it stands now asks that all emissions standards revert back to those held in place in the year 1990. A really good quick guide about the legislation and laws around greenhouse gas emissions can be found at the Air Resources Board website: http://www.arb.ca.gov/html/lawsregs.htm
16. Can these products be used in the home to clean air?
Purify Solutions is in the process of developing a new product, using the same technology we use in the Booster and the Purifier, to do that. This product is not available yet however.
17. Can these products be used to clean air in cities where there are already huge amounts of smog or NOx?
Yes. One Combustion Purifier arranged to clean city air would clean about 80 city blocks of air.
18. Can I buy just one?
Currently, we are taking orders for the Combustion Purifier and the Catalytic Booster, and yes, you can order just one if that is all you need.
19. How long will my Combustion Purifier order take?
Typical delivery time is 4-6 weeks but is dependent on stock levels and demand.
20. What is ISO-8178?
ISO-8178 is a standard published by the British Standards Institute, adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO – a body of the United Nations) which requires and governs measurement of emissions from reciprocating internal combustion engines. The standard comes into force in 2011, by which time marine vessel operators will need to have effective means of measuring emissions of various pollutants from engine exhaust in place. These pollutants include NOx as well as SOx, hydrocarbons, O2, CO, CO2, and particulate matter. It also specifies acceptable methods for making these measurements.
21. How does the Artemis system meet the requirements of ISO-8178?
Artemis provides a portable laboratory that continuously measures the emissions performance of the engines aboard a vessel. It provides the same laboratory-quality verifiable results that are used to initially certify the engines when they are first manufactured. Although Artemis is only one of several acceptable methods of measuring pollution levels, it is the only one that helps the operator save money through the ability to optimize settings in a way that improves fuel efficiency on a real-time basis while maintaining compliance.
22. How does the Artemis system work?
Artemis connects to exhaust gas sampling hookups installed to the exhaust system at each engine to take continuous samples. Artemis’ computer keeps a continuous log of the data (from multiple sources) and performs continuous data analysis to measure against allowable limits, identify trends, and recommend setting adjustments for optimal efficiency and emissions. This data is transmitted wirelessly to the engineering control station and bridge and can also be sent by satellite uplink to the home office.
23. How are Artemis’ pollution measurement instruments calibrated?
The Artemis system is periodically and automatically calibrated against calibration gases of know concentrations. With other emissions monitoring products, many heavy gas flask would be needed. Artemis drastically reduces the bulk and cost of these calibration flasks by incorporating a device called a Zero-Air Generator which creates pure calibration gasses out of ordinary air.